Post hoc is from the the Latin phrase “post hoc, ergo propter hoc,” which translates as “after this, therefore because of this.”
Inferences about the nature of individuals are solely based on the aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong. Similar to the Association Fallacy and the Fallacy of Division, the Ecological Fallacy makes inferences about individuals on the basis of a
Arguing that because two things share (or are implied to share) some property, they are the same.
A proposition is claimed to be true or good solely because a majority or many people believe it to be so.
A thesis is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held when something else, known to be false, was also commonly held.
Assuming that a claim is true because it has not been or cannot be proven false, or vice versa.
“I cannot imagine how this could be true; therefore, it must be false.”
Assumption that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, the conclusion must also be false.
A claimed authority’s support is used as evidence for an argument’s conclusion.
Assuming that something which is true of a thing must also be true of some or all of its parts (reverse of the Fallacy of Composition).