Reflection Cube

Three-dimensional thoughts

broken window fallacy

Broken Window Fallacy

The Broken Window Fallacy is an argument which disregards lost opportunity costs associated with destroying property of others, or the price of externalizing costs onto others.

A classic example of the Broken Window Fallacy is an argument which states that breaking a window generates income for a glazier, but disregards the fact that the money spent on the new window cannot now be spent on new shoes.

Another example of this fallacy is the argument for redistribution of wealth, or taxing those in higher income brackets more heavily in order to give to people who work less skilled jobs or don’t work as many hours.

The net effect of this is lost opportunity. Had those in the higher income brackets been taxed at a more fair, flat rate, they could have invested that saved tax money in businesses and created more jobs (an unseen benefit), but instead, their money is being stolen for the immediate seen benefit of handing out money to those in a lower income bracket.

While this will foster more spending (consumerism), it will not directly foster more value creation. It only recirculates the current wealth.

What fosters creation of value in the economy is hard work, not paper handouts.

Hard work promotes creation (making new widgets).

Handouts perpetuate consumption (redistributing and recirculating the widgets).

While at first glance robbing the rich and giving to the poor might seem like the most caring approach to managing the economy, in the long run, it actually hurts jobs – and consequently hurts everyone.


The lower wage earners have little incentive to work more – as they’ll get paid extra anyway – and the higher wage earners have less incentive to work more – because their money is going to get stolen anyway.

Their hard-earned money is going to be spent on people who want to work less rather than on jobs for people who want to work more and create new value.

This discourages everyone from working hard and creating value.

This wealth distribution externalizes a price onto higher wage earners. While redistributing the wealth may temporarily “fix” things – stimulating spending in the economy by the lower income bracket – in the long run, it damages the job creators of the economy – the “rich people”. Like them or not, they are our friends when it comes to helping the economy – if we’ll stop trying to rob them. If we hurt them, we hurt ourselves.

(Note: I am writing this as someone who is currently in a very low income bracket.)

Also, please note: I am not saying that it’s wrong to ever give to those in need. But the choice of where our money is allotted should be largely our prerogative. Why? Because we want to be assured that we are giving to someone who wants to work hard (has a good work ethic) and/or is in need, disabled, or otherwise preoccupied in serving family/community, and not someone who is perfectly capable of working more but isn’t really trying.

We want to be reasonably assured that our money is being entrusted to diligent and/or truly needy hands, rather than squandered on some lazy kid’s newest toy.

In this example, taxing “rich people” to give to the poor is breaking the window to “create money” for the window fitter.

But we had to destroy to create. We disregarded the fact that now the rich person can’t spend as much money on job creation (new shoes).

Please see disclaimer.

appeal to the stone fallacy

Appeal to the Stone (argumentum ad lapidem)

Dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity.

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gambler's fallacy - logic

Gambler’s Fallacy

The Gambler’s Fallacy is the flawed belief that separate, independent events can affect the likelihood of another random event.

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Fallacy of the Single Cause (Causal Oversimplification)

Fallacy of the Single Cause (Causal Oversimplification)

It is assumed that there is one, simple cause of an outcome when, in reality, that outcome may have been caused by a number of only jointly sufficient causes.

“Joey is always exhausted because he works ten-hour days.”

While his work schedule is almost certainly a causative factor in his fatigue, Joey’s fatigue might also be rooted in an insufficient intake of sodiumgenetics correlated with impaired detoxification pathways, magnesium deficiency, and/or Lyme Disease or another chronic infection.

It’s unlikely that 4-5 long work days/week alone would leave Joey chronically exhausted. His job was more likely the tipping point, which triggered the manifestation of an already-growing problem beneath the surface due to poor diet, genetics, environment, etc.

fallacy of the single cause (causal oversimplification) illustration

(To learn more about my battle with Lyme Disease and follow my journey to recovery, subscribe to my new blog, 🙂

Please see disclaimer.

post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, false cause, logical fallacies

Post Hoc (False Cause) Fallacy

Post hoc is from the the Latin phrase “post hoc, ergo propter hoc,” which translates as “after this, therefore because of this.”

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city, culture, society, sign of cultural collapse - transgender mania

A Sign of Cultural Collapse

ecological fallacy design, logic

Ecological Fallacy

Inferences about the nature of individuals are solely based on the aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong.

Similar to the Association Fallacy and the Fallacy of Division, the Ecological Fallacy makes inferences about individuals on the basis of a general group identity.

Example #1: Women are generally more empathic than men. Therefore, Ally is more empathic than Kyle.

Example #2: The majority of Republicans are not concerned about modern harmful agricultural practices. Amy is a Republican. Therefore, Amy doesn’t care about healthy living or the environment.

ecological fallacy illustration

Please see disclaimer.

update: life, Lyme, and logic, person at computer, blogging

Life, Lyme, and Logic – An Update

My Dear Readers,

I realize I’ve been pulling back on publishing for the past few days…


Okay, months. :/

Between health issues, blog transitions, and life, it’s been a challenge.

I just moved Reflection Cube and The Bleeding Blogger from to This change required me to obtain my own hosting plan directly and essentially get my hands more dirty. This slight decrease in convenience is worth the greater freedom and flexibility afforded with the free software. Although the hosting transition has been completed, I’m still working on polishing the new setup for my sites.

And…I just found out I have Lyme Disease. Perhaps this new discovery is a good excuse to start a blog specifically devoted to the health arena.

Announcing…Health Hobo!

For quite some time, I’ve been wanting to start a health-focused blog, and make Reflection Cube more, well…reflective.

Since my health journey is a huge part of my life, I anticipate that its colors will still manifest from time to time in my writing on RC. But for lots of nitty-gritty health and research details, as well as natural beauty tips, recipes, and more, I suggest you follow the Hobo. 😉 I’ve added much of my health-related content from RC over there as well. HH is still in the baby stages, but I don’t expect it to stay there for long.

Back on the home base of Reflection Cube, I intend to return to our logic series soon (and probably random other things that pop into my head, as usual.). 😉 If there’s a specific logical fallacy (or another topic) you’d be interested in seeing me write about, let me know.

Also check out my other blog – The Bleeding Blogger – where I share about topics related to the Christian faith and evidence, as well as encouraging thoughts and quotes.




Several Possible Reasons For Food Intolerance

It is possible for multiple people to be sensitive to the same food for many different reasons. Here, we’ll look at some foods to which people are commonly sensitive and/or allergic, and examine some of the possible explanations for their adverse reactions.

Although it’s very tempting for me to explore a lot of these topics in more depth with you guys, I want to keep it short and simple here. If you or a loved one is sensitive to several foods and unsure of the common thread(s) or factor(s), hopefully you will find this quick list helpful in your sleuthing – a resource of possibilities to research and test.


A person could be sensitive to dairy for any of the following reasons (please note: this – and all subsequent lists – are not necessarily comprehensive):

A “lactose-intolerant” person may, in fact, be sensitive to dairy for one or more additional/other reasons.


  • Celiac (a very severe form of gluten sensitivity)
  • A non-celiac form of gluten sensitivity
  • Lectin sensitivity (people with thyroid/autoimmune problems often suffer from this)
  • Wheat protein allergy
  • Glutamate (gluten contains glutamate (the gliadin breaks down into glutamine then glutamate), so gluten and glutamate sensitivities often go hand-in-hand)
  • Histamine intolerance (poor methylation)
  • Phytic acid

Other Grains (Rye, Barley, Spelt, Millet, Oats, Rice, etc.)

  • Lectin sensitivity
  • Gluten sensitivity (particularly with rye, barley, and spelt)
  • Sulfur sensitivity
  • Phytic acid (binds to nutrients, making them unavailable to the body)

Nightshades (Tomatoes, Potatoes, Eggplant, Paprika, Cayenne Pepper, etc.)

  • Lectins
  • Solanine
  • Calcitriol (hardens tissues in the body, can lead to chronic pain, hypercalcemia, arthritis)
  • Glutamate
  • Capsaicin
  • Nicotine
  • Histamine intolerance

What Are Nightshade Vegetables? How to Find Out If You’re Sensitive to Them (Note: ashwagandha is also a nightshade but is not mentioned in this article.)



  • Glutamate
  • Sulfur sensitivity
  • Oxalates
  • Histamine intolerance


  • Nut protein allergy
  • Lectin sensitivity
  • Phytic acid
  • Glutamate
  • Sulfur sensitivity

Alcoholic Beverages


  • Sulfites (can be problematic for those with SUOX genetic mutations)
  • Alcohol sensitivity
  • Sensitivity to cultures / fermented products (often seen with poor methylation, histamine intolerance)
  • Glutamate (glutamate is a factor in the creation of the “umami” (rich, addictive) taste of grapes, Chinese food, soups with MSG, etc.)



  • Lectin sensitivity
  • Sulfur sensitivity
  • Phytic acid

Most (if not all) of the above reasons for food intolerance are applicable for me. This may not be true for you (hopefully it isn’t), but I am living proof that it is possible to be sensitive to a food for several reasons. 😛

In light of this, I’m still somewhat perplexed as to how I justified trying sheep cheese last week. (I definitely paid for it – skin problems, GI distress, head discomfort, aches.) I still want to try camel milk/cheese, as camel milk is in some ways quite different structurally from other types of milk.

However, although the sheep cheese and some exposure to environmental toxins set me back these past few days (…still recovering from the sheep cheese…), I do seem to be regaining some health in general. I have been able to tolerate some more foods lately. 😀

So there is hope! 😉

For more information on types of food intolerance and potentially problematic foods, check out Legit Excuses for Picky Eaters. It categorizes more by food problem than by food type/group, as I did here.

It should be noted that I omitted several potentially problematic foods here. If you have a question about a food not mentioned here, feel free to ask in the comments. But please also take into account that I am not a doctor, and although I endeavor to provide my readers with accurate information, you follow any and all information presented on this blog and in the comments at your own risk. PLEASE SEE DISCLAIMER.

Magnesium Deficiency – Approximately 80% of Americans

Sweeteners: Trash and Treasure

When You Can Only Eat Five Foods

association fallacy illustration, logic, philosophy, arguments, reason, thinking

Association Fallacy (Guilt by Association and Honor by Association)

Arguing that because two things share (or are implied to share) some property, they are the same.

Premise: A is a B.

Premise: A is also a C.

Conclusion: Therefore, all Bs are Cs.

Association fallacy illustration

  • Benny is a con artist. Benny has black hair. Therefore, all people with black hair are con artists.
  • Simon, Karl, Jared, and Brett are all friends of Josh, and they are all petty criminals. Jill is a friend of Josh; therefore, Jill is a petty criminal.

Guilt by Association as an Ad Hominem Fallacy

Guilt by association can sometimes also be a type of ad hominem (“to the man”) fallacy.

In this twist of the Guilt by Association fallacy, the argument attacks a person because a specific or singular ideological similarity exists between the person making the argument and another unrelated (and hated) group.

This form of the argument is as follows:

  • Source S makes claim C.
  • Group G (which is currently viewed negatively by the recipient of source S’s claim) also makes claim C.
  • Therefore, source S is viewed as associated with – or similar to – group G, and source S inherits recipient R’s negative perception of group G.

guilt by association ad hominem fallacy illustration

“My opponent for office just received an endorsement from the Puppy Haters Association. Is that the sort of person you would want to vote for?”

In this case, the common interest (similarity) between the Puppy Haters and opponent O is that they both want O to get elected.

Guilt of puppy hating is being assigned to O because O and P.H. have similar political interests. (They may very well have different views on animal cruelty and treatment of puppies.)

Another example of this is when those opposed to “safe spaces” on college campuses – or opposed to the use of recently developed gender-neutral pronouns – are lumped together with white supremacists or the ill-defined alt-right.

While many white supremacists or “alt-righters” may hold similar stances on these issues, this does not mean that everyone who is similarly opposed to “safe spaces” or use of gender-neutral pronouns can be easily classified as a “white supremacist” or a “member of the alt-right”.

The entities in question might share opinions on some issues, but this does not mean that they agree on all issues (e.g. white supremacy, anti-Semitism, misogyny, etc.).

Guilt by Association as an Ad Hominem fallacy is a favorite among proponents of identity politics.

Honor by Association

The logical inverse of “guilt by association” is honor by association, where one claims that someone or something must be reputable, trustworthy, or reliable because of the people or organizations which are related to it or otherwise support it.

Many businesses heavily use the principle of honor by association in their advertisements and marketing. For example, an attractive spokesperson will say that a specific product is good. The attractiveness of the spokesperson gives the product good associations.

Some information and examples taken/adapted from Wikipedia.

Please see disclaimer.

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